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    青年學術沙龍|基于跨文化視角的專名指稱實證研究

    發布日期:2019-05-05   瀏覽次數

    2019329日(周五)下午3:30,華東師范大學哲學系和上海中西哲學與文化比較研究會以及華東師范大學學報(哲學社會科學版)編輯部聯合舉辦的青年學術沙龍如期在華東師范大學閔行校區馮契學術陳列館(前人文沙龍)舉行。此次沙龍的報告人是華東師范大學外語學院英語系博士后研究員李金彩,主持人是華東師范大學哲學系張容南副教授。出席此次報告的有上海交通大學馬克思主義學院李主斌副教授,華東師范大學哲學系葛四友教授、張容南副教授、朱晶副教授、徐竹副教授、郁鋒副教授,以及華東師范大學的部分研究生和博士生。

    此次沙龍的主題是“基于跨文化視角的專名指稱實證研究”。報告人李金彩博士聚焦專名指稱問題,根據Kripke的“哥德爾指稱案例”設計了兩套實驗以研究中國人和美國人指稱性直覺系統的差異,并通過分析實驗數據指出這種差異很大程度上是由不同的認知視角選擇策略引起的。

    李金彩博士首先介紹兩種指稱理論:描述語理論(摹狀詞理論)和歷史因果理論。這兩種理論在面對Kripke的“哥德爾指稱案例”時會給出不同的答案。已有經驗研究表明美國人和中國人選擇歷史因果理論的不同比例,日本人的選擇和中國人比較接近,在指稱理論的直覺選擇上存在很強的跨文化差異。

    為探究這種差異現象產生的原因,李博士設計了實驗對中、美成人與兒童的專名指稱性直覺進行探查。實驗結果顯示,在確定專有名詞的指稱時,兩個年齡段的美國人都傾向于歷史因果理論,而中國人則更傾向于摹狀詞理論,指稱性直覺之跨文化模式在七歲時業已形成,學校的正規教育以及社交經歷與該種差異的形成并無關系。由此,李博士設計了第二個實驗,探究認知視角對指稱直覺的影響。實驗結果表明,美國被試強調事實信息。在規定認知視角時,中、美被試能按既定的認知視角回答問題;在未規定認知視角時,中國人更傾向于選擇他人視角回答問題。

    最后,李博士指出,不同的認知視角導致了西方人和東方人對指稱的不同直覺判斷模式:中國人傾向從他人視角思考因而更多選擇摹狀詞理論,美國人傾向堅持自己的觀點因而更多選擇歷史因果理論。此前觀察到的指稱性直覺的跨文化差異很大程度上歸因于不同的認知視角選擇策略。

    在李博士報告結束后,朱晶副教授就測試題目翻譯、樣本代表性、數據分析軟件等問題發表了提問,葛四友教授提出對專名的熟悉程度是否會影響指稱理論的選擇,郁鋒副教授、徐竹副教授、李主斌副教授就被試年齡選擇、該實驗結果涉及的知識論問題進行了討論。沙龍在老師們的精彩討論中順利結束。參與此次講座的同學受益良多。

     


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