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    哲學青年學術沙龍|唯一論與合理性的高階潰敗

    發布日期:2019-05-21   瀏覽次數

    2019514日(周二)下午3:00,華東師范大學哲學系、學報編輯部和上海中西哲學與文化比較研究會聯合舉辦的青年學術沙龍如期在閔行校區人文沙龍暨馮契學術成就陳列室舉行。此次沙龍的報告人是武漢大學哲學學院葉茹副教授,主持人是哲學系徐竹副教授。出席此次報告的有上海大學哲學系劉小濤副教授、戴益斌博士,上海交通大學人文學院哲學系黃遠帆助理教授,上海交通大學科學史與科學文化研究院王球副教授。此外,哲學系的葛四友教授、顏青山教授以及部分研究生和博士生參加了討論。

    此次沙龍的主題是“唯一論與高階潰敗”(Uniqueness And Higher-Order Defeat)。葉茹老師首先介紹了唯一論、高階證據、高階潰敗的概念,并指出某些高階潰敗的例子構成了唯一論的反例。其次,她指出支持唯一論的隨意性論證(argument from arbitrariness)的兩個前提——規則的不偏不倚性(rule-impartiality)與高階潰敗是相互沖突的。最后,她基于理智責任(intellectual responsibility)的概念指出,應該堅持高階潰敗的原則,而規則的不偏不倚性則是錯誤的。

    葉老師首先介紹了兩種唯一論:個人的唯一論(intrapersonal uniqueness)和人際間的唯一論(interpersonal uniqueness)。人際間的唯一論指的是對同一個命題P擁有相同證據E的兩個人來說,只有一個態度對他們來說是合理的。高階證據(higher-order evidence)指的是關于信念形成過程的證據,它與信念內容本身無關。高階潰敗是指由高階證據帶來的合理性潰敗,即如果有高階證據表明某人的信念形成過程存在問題,那么他就應該改變信念態度。

    葉老師介紹說,隨意性論證是支持人際間的唯一論的主要理由。該論證有兩個前提:一是一旦知道自己處在一種兩可狀態中(permissive situation),你可以通過隨意的方式選擇相信某種信念。二是當你知道只能以一種任意的方式相信P時,你就不能理性的相信P。前提二預設了高階潰敗。而規則的不偏不倚性是指,如果對于同一個命題PAB兩人擁有相同證據,那么對A來說是好的規則,對B也同樣適用。前提一預設了規則不偏不倚。麻煩的是,高階潰敗和規則不偏不倚相互沖突。

    葉老師指出,高階潰敗并不符合支持規則不偏不倚性的三種解釋,但基于理智責任的考慮,高階潰敗仍然是一個好的認知規則。由于存在信息獲取和認知能力上的差別,即使兩個人擁有相同的證據,也可能出現一個人應該相信P,而另一個人應該懸置P的情況。因此,規則的不偏不倚性應該被放棄,這樣高階潰敗的原則就對唯一論立場形成了嚴重的挑戰。

    報告結束后,劉小濤老師、戴益斌老師和黃遠帆老師作了評論和提問,葉茹老師作了一一回應。葛四友老師、顏青山老師和徐竹老師等也參與了相關問題討論,參與此次講座的同學受益良多。

     

    圖文:邱于洋

     


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